Principle 1: All English Language Learners are capable of learning to high
standards if optimal teaching and a supportive environment are provided.
Principle 2: Learning is a process of apprenticeship in which novices become
experts with scaffolding from the teacher or more capable peer.
Principle 3: Language is acquired through social interactions that are engaging,
meaningful, and purposeful.
Principle 4: Teaching/learning needs to be responsive. Cultural norms and
expectations for effective participation in mainstream social and academic life need
to be explicitly taught to English Learners.
Principle 5: Using language is more than using correct grammar and vocabulary. It
requires cultural knowledge of what is appropriate and an understanding of
Principle 6: Use of rituals or familiar participation structures is necessary when
concepts of language are novel (new). Familiar concepts and familiar language
can serve as the vehicle to learn new rituals or ways of participating in
Principle 7: Language learning requires conscious effort by the student, and by the
informed support (scaffold) of the teacher.
Principle 8: Students should be encouraged to engage all of their resources,
including their native language, in the learning of English as a second language.
Principle 9: In instruction, the content must be rich and challenging, the language
must move beyond the sentence level to approximate natural discourse, and the
teaching must be carefully scaffolded.
Principle 10: Academic practices, learning and self-assessment strategies need to
be explicitly taught to English Language learners.
Principle 11: Instruction, curriculum, and assessments are aligned to reflect high
standards and best practices.
Principle 12: All parents can become successful partners in the education of
English learners by continuing to support the development of the first language.